Kinematic indices analysis of elite racing skiers’ technique in an individual classical style sprint

Authors:

Sergey A. Bratchikov, Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport, Youth and Tourism (State Central Lenin Order Institute of Physical Culture), Moscow, Russia ORCID: 0000-0003-0616-018X, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Valentina G. Senatskaya, Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport, Youth and Tourism (State Central Lenin Order Institute of Physical Culture), Moscow, Russia. ORCID: 0000-0001-8663-1548 This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Sergey S. Dubrovinskiy, Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport, Youth and Tourism (State Central Lenin Order Institute of Physical Culture), Moscow, Russia. ORCID: 0000-0002-8304-373X This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract:

В Nowadays there is an active increase of sports-technical results in skiing race. It concerns not only skating stride but also classical techniques. High level of sports results demands constant and hard work over the technique improvement [3, 5]. As multi-tour sprint disciplines were included into the Olympic program there are considerable changes in the technique of the most qualified racing skiers. Analysis of the structure of present elite skiers’ movements proves great effectiveness and efficiency of the frequency of sliding steps increase in terms of their length preservation or insignificant decrease [6]. Some research works stated that the length and frequency of the cycle (step) in cyclic kinds of sport are informative indices. They characterize the levels of technical and speed-power oriented readiness of athletes. Materials. The article presents the results of the main kinematic parameters analysis of classical skating steps technique among the winner and the prizewinners at World Championship 2021 in Oberstdorf in an individual skiing sprint. These parameters determine the effectiveness of competitive activity. Research methods. Information sources analysis and summarizing, official competitions protocols analysis of World Championship 2021, empiric (sports results and indices gathering, handling, analysis and systematization) and mathematical-statistical research methods, video analysis method. Results. We studied tournament distance speed and its components (frequency of the cycles), angular indices of the alternate two-step classic skiing steps technique at ¼, ½ rises and the final race. We defined the main peculiarities of the skiing route relief at World Championship 2021 in an individual sprint. They mainly define the technique and tactics of competitive activity in skiing sprint. The main results of the research include the following individual model characteristics of Johannes Klaebo. He is the leader of modern skiing race: dynamics of distance speed in qualification – 8,50 m/s, in quarter final – 8,56 m/s, in semifinal – 8,54 m/s and in the final race – 8,44 m/s. It proves the application of the maximal speed preservation tactics from race to race. Maximal values of a competitions winner movements frequency were achieved in a final race: at the first rise – 82,4 c/min, at the second rise – 76,4 and at the third rise – 97,2 cycles/min. We defined angular characteristics in the III phase of alternate two-step classic skating steps technique at the final rise: degree of the stationary foot flexion in a knee-joint is 118°, degree of a take-off leg flexion in a knee-joint is 69°, angle of body inclination is 146°, the angle of ski separation of a take-off leg from the support is 30°. The results analysis helped to determine the range of regularities. They provide high effectiveness in sprint. The results of the held research works help to reveal the tendencies of modern technique of skiing development using classical style. Conclusion. Received during the research results prove, that the variability of the elite racing skiers technique is determined by the ability to provide operative correction of movements in terms of external conditions and a functional state of an organism change. It is also the final stage of athletes’ technical mastery. The results can be used for technical mastery improvement in racing skiers, the training process individualization and help to predict sports results in the main competitions.

Keywords:

elite racing skiers, competitive activity, skiing sprint, routes relief, technique, tactics.

DOI: 10.14526/2070-4798-2021-16-2-9-15

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