Role and significance of athletes’ cardiorespiratory system during adaptation to functional loads

Authors:

Yurij S. Vanyushin, Kazan State Agrarian University Kazan, Russia, ORCID: 0000-0003-2667-6124, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Nikolay A. Fedorov, Kazan State Agrarian University Kazan, Russia, ORCID: 0000-0002-6515-0451, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Gulina K. Khuzina, Kazan State Agrarian University Kazan, Russia, ORCID: 0000-0003-1672-1980, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract:

Studying cardiorespiratory system still stays the main direction of present physiological science. Materials. The role and significance of the separate components of athletes’ cardiorespiratory system revelation during adaptation to functional loads. Research methods. Information sources analysis and summarizing, methods of mathematical statistics. In accordance with the methodology by V. Kubichek and other authors (1970), in modification by Yu.P. Pushkar and other authors (1980) and Yu.S. Vanyushin (1996), during motor activity we recorded the differential rheogram. With the help of this rheogram we calculated heart rate (HR), blood stroke volume (BSV) and blood circulation minute volume (BMV). The indices of external respiration were defined with the help of pneumotachograph. The results of gas exchange were calculated according to generally adopted formulae. As functional loads we used active orthostatic test and physical loads of the increasing power at bicycle ergometer. Results. In order to reveal different reactions of the cardiorespiratory system parts of athletes’ we created the methodology of a complex approach. It simultaneously registered cardiovascular and respiratory systems indices during functional loads of different orientation and the increasing power. The interaction between the components of cardiorespiratory system - cardiovascular and respiratory systems, is a difficult physiological process. The role and significance of the separate components is defined by the character and power of the functional loads, age related peculiarities of an organism and different kinds of sport. One of the absolute mechanisms of adaptation are the mechanisms connected with blood circulation indices (BI, CI) and gas exchange indices (COU2 ) increase. We revealed that these indices are typical for the group of 17-21 year-old boys and for 22-23 yearold athletes. The mechanisms with lung ventilation (RMV) volume increase are typical for 15- 16 year-old teen-agers and 36-60 year-old athletes. Conclusion. The offered methodology of athletes complex examination provides important theoretical information gathering concerning cardiorespiratory interaction in terms of different functional loads. It helps to create summarizing models in order to use them in practice for athletes’ educational-training process correction and an individual approach during different volume and intensity physical loads planning. The applied orthostatic test and bicycle ergometer loads of the increasing power can be recommended at the laboratories for the process of adaptation, the role and significance of cardiorespiratory system components revelation.

Keywords:

adaptation, cardiorespiratory system, load, functional system, blood circulation, respiration.

DOI: 10.14526/2070-4798-2021-16-2-101-105

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